Settlers of Catan is a strategy board game where the board is made up of hexes, and each hex has one of five resources: wood, brick, fleece, grain and ore. The board is actually set up by the players at the beginning by placing all the hexes down next to each other.
Players build settlements at the corners between hexes, and roads along the edges connecting the hexes, to branch out and control more of the board. Each turn, a player rolls 2 6-sided dice. Each hex has a number, 2-12, and each hex matching the die roll grants that resource to any player with a settlement bordering that hex.
After the roll, the player can trade resources with other players, trade them to the bank (expensive), or spend the resources to build more roads, settlements, etc.
Each building is worth points, and you get bonuses for doing other stuff like having the longest single line of roads.
Settlers of Canaan is similar to this, but you play on a fixed board, so all the hexes are always in the same spot with the same resource and the same number. There is also a "Wall of Jerusalem" that people can build next to, at the bottom of the board, and then build the wall to get another bonus.